No momento você está vendo O outro discurso seniano do 10.6.1977 e o “Dia de Camões” nos USA. (2a. parte)

O outro discurso seniano do 10.6.1977 e o “Dia de Camões” nos USA. (2a. parte)


In the final essay of the unit on Camões in the May 1974 issue of Hispania, C. Malcolm Batchelor rehearses the matter of the Brazilian Joaquim Nabuco’s profound devotion to the promotion of the Portuguese poet in Brazil and, later, in the United States. As a twenty-three year old Nabuco had published Camões e os Lusíadas (1872). As a thirty-year old he would proclaim, during the 1880 celebrations in Rio de Janeiro to an audience of four to five thousand listeners, “O Brasil e Os Lusíadas são as duas maiores obras de Portugal.” Batchelor’s detailed account makes the point that central to Nabuco’s sense of his own spiritual and intellectual worth was his conception of Camões’s exemplary greatness.

Two other items, by Americans in 1972, merit attention. Contributing to the festivities devoted to Camões that year, one that has been largely ignored, but well worth noting, is Edgar C. Knowlton, Jr.’s prose translation of Almeida Garrett’s canonical poem Camões. Knowlton, a university teacher who was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts (the location of an important Portuguese-American enclave) has spent most of his professional life in Hawaii. Contributing to the obscurity into which Knowlton’s translation has fallen, no doubt, is the fact that it appeared in Macau, in a double issue (numbers 1 and 2 of volume VI) of the Boletim de Instituto Luis de Camões. It is of interest to note that Knowlton’s translation is scheduled for republication in a forthcoming issue of Portuguese Literary and Cultural Studies (University of Massachusetts Dartmouth) devoted to Almeida Garrett.

The second of these 1972 items is a piece in the autumn issue of that year in the well regarded and, at the time, highly popular middlebrow journal Horizon. Contributed by Edmond Taylor, a distinguished historian (he was the author of Richer by Asia [1947], The Fall of the Dynasties [1963], and Awakening from History [1969]), this illustrated essay of eight pages argues the controversial thesis that Camões, the “one-eyed author of The Lusiads wrote—and lived—the national epic of Portugal, but his countrymen missed the moral: that the paths of imperial glory lead to the grave of the spirit.” Beginning his essay with an epigraph—lines from the old man’s dire warning (Canto IV, 95, 97)—Taylor puts the matter forcefully right at the outset:

To the contemporary American taste, Camoëns is probably the least readable among the schoolroom classics of Western literature. He comes surprisingly alive, however, if one rereads him in his native Lisbon, the seat of West’s first overseas empire, which has now become the last, defiant, though somehow dejected, bastion of Western colonialism. The tragic, beautiful city, scarred by so many disasters, where the poet was probably born and where he unquestionably lived out his years after a long, adventurous, unprofitable career as a colonial swashbuckler, is haunted by the delusions and
lucidities of his genius in almost the same way the passions and afflictions of a syphilitic haunt his descendants.

Cleverly using the legendary and virtually mythic story of the poet’s life and writings as told in “a pictorial biography, in gaudily colored comic-book format” — Camões (Colecção de 124 Cromos)—Taylor “corrects” the story, point by point, by incorporating the latest demythologizing scholarship on the subject. The historian has two principal aims: 1. to tell the story of the poet and his work (“Since Homer, few single poems have more effectively crystallized the deepest emotions, aspirations, and delusions of a whole people—even, perhaps, of an epoch”; and 2. to deplore Portugal’s dictatorship’s stubborn and disastrous refusal to give up its possessions in Africa (“Those fictitious ‘provinces’ of an anachronistic colonial empire camouflaged as a modern nation could someday prove to be the final grave, not merely of Portuguese imperialism, but of what up to now has remained a Christian and noble civilization—that of Portugal itself, Camoëns’s own”).

The participation of Jorge de Sena—by then settled permanently, as it turned out, at the University of California, Santa Barbara—at the University of Connecticut’s commemorative symposium in 1972, fit in perfectly with his own professional interest in promoting all matters Camonean over his entire literary and professional careers. During 1972 he took part in several congresses in Europe with major speeches and important papers that were in due course published in the appropriate actas. He published essays in the newspaper Diário Popular, along with the poem “Camões Dirige-se aos seus Contemporâneos” in the November 1972 issue of the journal Ocidente. Indeed, it can be said that Sena’s work on Camões, which included a doctoral dissertation and several other books, as well as numerous essays, reviews, newspaper articles, not to mention the brilliantly realized bio-critical story “Super Flumina Babylonis,” which ends with the sick and improvident Camões setting down the first line of his famous poem “By the Rivers of Babylon,” came, publicly, to a head in the early 1970s. (Interestingly enough, an advertisement for what appears to be the among the earliest, if not the first, film made about Camões also focuses on Camões’s final days. Produced by the internationally known Gaumont Company founded by Léon Gaumont (1864-1946) in Paris, this historical drama was released on December 9, 1911, and distributed in the United States by George Kleine of Chicago, Illinois, under the title “Camoens, the Portuguese Shakespeare.” )

During the period of 1972-73 Jorge de Sena made major contributions to the dissemination of information on Portugal’s great poet. On March 9, 1972, at the Centro Cultural Português, Gulbenkian, in Paris he spoke on “Camões: Quelques vues nouvelles sur son épopée et sa pensée,” which, later that year, appeared in the proceedings of those meetings, Visages de Luís de Camões: Conférences. In April Sena presented, in English, a version of his Paris speech at the University of Connecticut, in Storrs, Connecticut. The Portuguese version of this lecture appeared, as we have already noted, appeared as “Camões: Novas observações acerca da sua epopeia e do seu pensamento,” in November in the well-established and highly influential Lisbon journal Ocidente. This piece, Sena made a point of explaining, he had himself translated “do original ingles.” It offers a taste of a forthcoming book, one that he is putting the finishing touches on. In it, he will take up, as the necessary and complementary study to his previous investigation of the “architecture” of Camões’s epic, an interpretation the poem’s texture. Here is the abstract of Sena’s essay prepared editorially:

The Lusiads became such a symbol of Portuguese imperial glory that many believe it still weighs too heavily on Portuguese life. To foreigners, always suspicious of Portuguese colonial proclivities, celebrating The Lusiads is just a cover for dark intentions. It is difficult to separate the epic from what men have made of it for centuries. Even today eminent critics are unwilling to acknowledge the courage and coherence shown by Camões in his masterpiece. The Author had a manifold purpose when he tried to elucidate the “structure of The Lusiads”. Now he intends to study its texture. No ideas, however great, serve a poet’s true greatness unless they come to us perfectly embodied in the very texture of his works. By studying this texture the Author tries to read the poet’s intentional meaning, revealing complex Camonian inner thought and daring intention, and has selected some definitely important or controversial areas in order to probe it.

On June 8, 1972, Sena published an article (written in May) entitled “Camões em 1972” in the supplement Quinta-Feira à Tarde of the Diário Popular. Sena warned that national celebrations throughout Portugal must not commit the dual error of considering Camões lyrics secondary to his epic or, in pretext, viewing the poet’s work as the historical culmination of the nation’s heroic-military glory. Less than an ingenuous and proud celebration, Os Lusíadas is a tragic and desperate warning, just as relevant to a modern Portugal as it was when first published. In the Actas da I Reunião Internacional de Camonistas (Lisboa, 1973) appeared another of Sena’s conference talks, one that he was unable to deliver in person due to illness—“Aspectos do pensamento de Camões através da estrutura linguística de Os Lusíadas.” He contributed the entry on Camões to the 1.5th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, which appeared in 1973. He prepared a substantial Introduction, dated Santa Barbara, October 22, 1972, to a facsimile edition of the 1639 edition of Lusíadas de Luís de Camões Comentadas por Manuel de Faria e Sousa. The next month he composed the preface for a facsimile edition of the edition of 1685 of Rimas Várias de Luís de Camões Comentadas por Manuel de Faria e Sousa. Sena aims his remarks on this occasion at Camões scholarship down the centuries, which had denigrated Faria e Sousa’s work while availing itself of his insights and observations. Faria y Sousa’s work is simply, according to Sena, “o mais rico repositório de comentos sobre a epopeia, a fonte semiclandestina de mais três séculos de erudição camoniana, um dos mais extraordinários monumentos erguidos por alguém, devotadamente, a um poeta e a uma cultura, eis o que regressa aberta e publicaments ao mundo português, que é o seu.”

At the same time Sena also arranged with his publisher in Oporto to bring out a limited edition of a composite work entitled Camões Dirige-se aos seus Contemporâneos e Outros Textos. The publication collects three works: Sena’s 1966 story “Super Flumina Babylonis” (taken from the collection Novas Andanças do Demónio), “Camões Dirige-se aos Seus Contemporâneos” (a poem from his 1963 collection Metamorphoses that references the elaborate ceremonial translation of the poet’s putative remains to the Jerónimos monastery in 1880—“Nada tereis, mas nada: nem os ossos, / que um vosso esqueleto há-de ser buscado, / para passar por meu”), and “Camões na Ilha de Moçambique,” an unpublished poem written on 20 July 1972 in Moçambique, where Sena was lecturing on Camões. The Moçambique poem is worth recalling for its frankly stated humanizing and universalizing image of Camões as an earthy creature of nature:

É pobre e já foi rica. Era mais pobre
quando Camões aqui passou primeiro,
cheia de livros a cabeça e lendas
e muita estúrdia de Lisboa reles.
Quando passados nele os Orientes
e o amargor dos vis sempre tão ricos,
aqui ficou, isto crescera, mas
a fortaleza ainda estava em obras,
as casas eram poucas, e o terreno
passeio descampado ao vento e ao sol
desta alavanca mínima, em coral,
do onde saltavam para Goa as naus,
que dela venham cheias de pecados
e de bagagens ricas e pimentas podres.
Como nau nos baixios que aos Sepúlvedas
deram no amor corte primeiro à vida,
aqui ficou sem nada senão versos.
Mas antes dele, como depois dele,
aqui passaram todos: almirantes,
ladrões e vice-reis, poetas e cobardes,
os santos e os heróis, mais a canalha
sem nome e sem memória, que serviu
de lastro, marujagem, e de carne
para os canhões e os peixes, como os outros.
Tudo passou aqui—Almeidas e Gonzagas,
Bocages e Albuquerques, desde o Gama.
Naqueles tempos se fazia o espanto
desta pequena aldeia citadina
de brancos, negros, indianos, e cristãos,
e muçulmanos, brâmanes, e ateus.
Europa e África, o Brasil e as Índias,
cruzou-se tudo aqui neste calor tão branco
como do forte a cal no pátio, e tão cruzado
como a elegância das nervuras simples
da capela pequena do baluarte.
Jazem aqui em lápides perdidas
os nomes todos dessa gente que,
como hoje os negros, se chegava às rochas,
baixava as calças e largava ao mar
a mal-cheirosa escória de estar vivo.
Não é de bronze, louros na cabeça,
nem no escrever parnasos, que te vejo aqui.
Mas num recanto em cócoras marinhas,
soltando às ninfas que lambiam rochas
o quanto a fome e a glória da epopeia
em ti se digeriam. Pendendo para as pedras
teu membro se lembrava a estremcia
de recordar na brisa as croias mais as damas,
e versos de soneto perpassavam
junto de um cheiro a merda lá na sombra,
de onde n’alma fervia quanto nem pensavas.
Depois, alviado, tu subias
aos baluartes e fitando as águas
sonhavas de outra Ilha, a Ilha única,
enquanto a mão se te pousava lusa,
em franca distracção, no que te era a pátria
por ser a ponta da semente dela.
E de zarolho não podias ver
distâncias separadas: tudo te era uma
e nada mais: o Paraíso e as Ilhas,
heróis, mulheres, o amor que mais se inventa,
e uma grandeza que não há em nada.
Pousavas n’água o olhar e te sorrias
—mas não amargamente, só de alívio,
como se te limparas de miséria,
e de desgraça e de injustiça e dor
de ver que eram tão poucos os melhores,
enquanto a caca ia-se na brisa esbelta,
igual ao que se esquece e se lançou de nós.

This is an imagined scene, of course, one presenting, at an earlier time, the Camões who is destined to endure even greater hardships after he has returned home to Lisbon, difficulties that even the publication of his great poem will only temporarily assuage. The poem is part of Sena’s project to demythologize the romanticized, fanciful life of Camões inherited, largely, from the late eighteenth century.

The publication of the collection Camões Dirige-se aos seus Contemporâneos e Outros Textos was delayed for several months, appearing only in 1973. It is also of interest that it was precisely in the autumn of 1972 that Sena wrote the remarkable poetic meditations that he collected under the indicative title “Sobre esta praia,” pointing back to the opening words of Camões’s great poem: “Sobre os rios.” “Note-se ainda, de uma vez para sempre,” as Sena writes in his guise as scholar, in an essay titled “Babel e Sião,” “que o 1o verso é Sobre os rios que vão e não Sôbolos, como aparece na 2a edicão, 1598, à conta das prosódicas emendas que provámos espúrias.” Not to put too fine a point on it—that there is an obvious link between “Sobre esta praia” and Camões—let me just say that in these eight meditations on almost clinical analysis of the nexus of nude bodies and sexuality by the Pacific Ocean, Sena draws not only on Camões’s poem “By the Rivers of Babylon” but from, “modernizing” it as he goes along, the episode of the Island of love in Book IX of Os Lusíadas.

It was at approximately the same time that Sena submitted his entry on Camões to the fifteenth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (copyright 1974). When Mécia de Sena collected this piece in Trinta Anos de Camões in 1980, she wrote in explanation:

Esta é, em tradução, a primeira versão destinada à 15.a edição da Enciclopédia Britânica. Nada tem em comum com o que foi publicado senão, evidentemente, o que é factual. O que na Enciclopédia saiu foi uma versão tornada estilisticamente incolor e rearrumada pelos serviços da mesma
Enciclopédia. Aliás, nunca correspondera ao desejo da mesma—queriam a “entrada” dedicada mais exclusivamente à biografia do Poeta, o que, como é sabido, sό usando de muita fantasia se poderia fazer.

Sena’s essay ran to close to 4500 words, but the published entry ran to about 2800 words, in addition to listings of Camões’ major works and selected biographical-critical bibliography running to some seventy lines. Besides flattening Sena’s characteristically rhetorical style and rearranging material, the Britannica’s editors made two major changes in content. They dropped most of Sena’s discussion of the accumulated scholarship on Camões and his work, and they dropped his comparisons of Camões with other writers, notably Shakespeare. Here, for example, is a passage omitted in the Britannica but restored in Trinta Anos de Camões:

O caso de Camões é, como grande e internacional figura, o reverso do de Shakesperare. Muito se sabe da vida de Shakespeare, em comparacão, mas ninguém aceita que ele não tivesse sido um mínimo de génio “romântico” na sua vida privada; quase nada se sabe ao certo sobre Camões e tudo aponta para que tenha sido um homem bem pouco comum (no entanto em acordo com a sua posição na vida social do seu tempo e na sua era de aventuras imperiais), que, ao contrário de Shakespeare, nunca casou ou foi pai de sabidos filhos (apesar da sua ostentacão de casos amorosos, ardente erotismo e até adolescente gabarolice nas suas obras—ou talvez demasiado de tudo isto). Os eruditos têm discutido largamente as ideias de Shakespeare, que ele encerra nas declarações teatrais feitas pelas suas personagens em situações dramáticas; das ideias de Camões, dos seus sentimentos, esperanças e tristezas, estejam como estiverem disfarçadas sob os modos e tonalidades da sua época (e também por causa dos perigosamente repressivos tempos em que vivia), tudo sabemos, já que não muitos grandes poetas, no mundo da literatura, escreveram tanto acerca de si mesmos come ele fez obsessivamente, até no seu poema épico. A crítica sobre as suas obras (especialmente a épica) tem sido imensamente enganada pelo orgulho e preconceito políticos ou religiosos portugueses, que pondo em relevo o carácter nacional do poema épico, reduziram a mais large visão do pensamento de Camões.

Sena, who had proudly read the whole of his original entry for the Britannica at the University of Connecticut in 1972, was understandably disappointed that his essay had been so modified and shortened without his consent—which, of course, he would not have given. The Britannica was interested in Sena’s comparisons of Camões Shakespeare or his detailed attempt to correct centuries of critical misinformation about Camões.

Surely, in the early 1970s, no one’s efforts exceeded those of Sena, scholar or poet, to bring attention to Camões in the quadricentennial year of the publication of Os Lusíadas. As for the real effect of the celebratory events of 1972, that, too, was assessed by Sena, in 1975:

When, in preparation for the celebrations of the 3rd centennial of his death, in 1880, his [Camões’s] Portuguese admirers looked for the remains, everything was most uncertain. And the bones transferred with pomp and circumstance to a lavish tomb placed in the “Jerónimos” monastery, a splendid building erected in Lisbon at the beginning of the 16th century near the beach from where Vasco da Gama (the hero of The Lusiads) left for his glorious voyage to India, and to celebrate the great event—those bones are for sure not his. So there happened with his remains what had happened with his life, with his lyrical poetry left scattered and unpublished when he died, and, we can say, with his poetical personality at the hands of many biographers and critics. Now (and paradoxically the celebrations of the 4th centennial of The Lusiads in 1972 have helped) Camões is rising from the dead like the phoenix.

In 1980, two years after Jorge de Sena’s death, his spirit was still very much present at the “Colóquios Camonianos” commemorating the quadricentennial of the death of Camões, held at the University of California, Santa Barbara on April 25-26, 1980. Nineteen of the more than two dozen papers presented were selected for the Proceedings volume published as Camoniana Californiana under the editorship of Maria de Lourdes Belchior and Enique Martínez-López in 1985. The entire effort, the colloquium and itspublished proceedings, was intended, according to the editors, to run counter to the pessimism expressed by Jorge de Sena’s famous poem (quoted in the book’s preface):

Podereis roubar-me tudo:
as ideias, as palavras, as imagens,
e também as metáforas, os temas, os motivos,
os símbolos, e a primazia
nas dores sofridas de uma lingua nova,
no entendimento de outros, na coragem
de combater, julgar, de penetrar
em recessos de amor para que sois castrados.
E podereis depois não me citar,
suprimir-me, ignorar-me, aclamar até
outros ladrões mais felizes.

A listing of those participants whose papers were included in the published proceedings, along with their institutional affiliation, will give an indication of the scope of this international gathering in California on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. Included were José Martins Garcia (Brown University), Kenneth David Jackson (University of Texas at Austin), Maria de Lourdes Belchior (University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Lisbon), Stephen Reckert (King’s College, University of London), Maria Leonor Machado de Sousa (New University of Lisbon), Bryant Creel (California State University, Los Angeles), Augusto Hacthoun (Wheaton College), Gordon Jensen (Brigham Young University), Frederick G. Williams (University of California, Santa Barbara), Leodegário A. de Azevedo Filho (P.U.C., Rio de Janeiro), Rebecca Catz, Joaquim-Francisco Coelho (Harvard University), Eduardo Mayone Dias (University of California, Los Angeles), Nelly Novaes Coelho (University of São Paulo), Davi Traumann (University of California, Santa Barbara), Vergílio Ferreira, António Cirurgião (University of Connecticut), Gilberto Mendonça Teles (P.U.C., Rio de Janeiro), and Ronald S. Sousa (University of Minnesota). It is interesting to note that there are twelve American universities represented in this list, as opposed to two Brazilian, two Portuguese, and one British. It is a curiosity that Francis Rogers of Harvard did not attend the meetings although he did send a paper. It was not included in the commemorative volume.

Later in the same commemorative year, a three-day multidisciplinary conference on the subject “The Portuguese World in the Time of Camões: Sixteenth-Century Portugal, Brazil, Portuguese Africa, and Portuguese Asia” was held at the University of Florida (September 29-October 1, 1980). Of the twenty-six presentations, eighteen were included in the proceedings volume, Empire in Transition: The Portuguese World in the Time of Camões, edited by Alfred Hower and Richard A. Preto-Rodas and published in 1985. The volume prints a goodly number of papers dealing entirely or substantially with Camões: A. H. de Oliveira Marques (“A View of Portugal in the Time of Camões”), Peter Fothergill-Payne (“A Prince of Our Disorder: ‘Good Kingship’ in Camões, Couto, and Manuel de Melo”), José Sebastião da Silva Dias (“Camões perante o Portugal do Seu Tempo”), Graça Silva Dias (“Cultura e Sociedade na Infância e Adolescência de Camões”), Harold V. Livermore (“On the Title of The Lusiads”), Jack E. Tomlins (“Gil Vicente’s Vision of India and its Ironic Echo in Camões’s ‘Velho do Restelo’”), René Concepción (“The Theme of Amphitryon in Luís de Camões and Hernán Pérez de Oliva”), William Melczer (“The Place of Camões in the European Cultural Conscience”), Norwood Andrews, Jr. (“Camões and Some of His Readers in American Imprints of Lord Strangford’s Translation in the Nineteenth Century”), and Alberto de Lacerda (“Os Lusíadas e Os Maias: um Binómio Português?”). There was also an additional paper by Marie Sovereign (“O Tema do Desconcerto na Lírica de Camões”). The institutions represented by those participants who spoke on the subject of Camões include the New University of Lisbon, University of Calgary, Instituto Nacional de Investigação Científica (Lisbon), University of British Columbia, University of Maryland, Queens College (New York), Syracuse University, Texas Tech University, and Boston University. It will be observed that between the Santa Barbara and Gainesville conferences in 1980 there were some fifteen different United States universities represented, only two of which were represented in 1972 in the Ocidente volume or in the Hispania issue of 1974. Notably, in its Winter 1980 issue, the scholarly journal Luso-Brazilian Review, published in Madison, Wisconsin, collected a half dozen articles under the commemorative heading “Camões and His Centuries.” The contributors were Gerald M. Moser, Joseph A. Klucas, Norwood Andrews, Jr., Clementine C. Rabassa, Kenneth David Jackson, and Alexandrino E. Severino.

To bring the matter closer to date, it can be noted that a major international conference, “Post-Imperial Camões,” was held at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth on October 11-12, 2002. The proceedings appear in Portuguese Literary & Cultural Studies 9 (2003), pages 1-243. This journal is published by the Center for Portuguese Studies and Culture at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. It includes fourteen papers: those presented by Helen Vendler (Harvard University), Miguel Tamen (University of Lisbon), Rita Marnoto (University of Coimbra), Helder Macedo (King’s College, University of London), Fernando Gil (New University in Lisbon), Hélio J. S. Alves (University of Évora), Josiah Blackmore (University of Toronto), Eduardo Lourenço, Anna Klobucka (University of Massachusetts Dartmouth), George Monteiro (Brown University), João R. Figueiredo (University of Lisbon), Lawrence Lipking (Northwestern University), Balachandra Rajan (University of Western Ontario), and Michael Murrin (University of Chicago).

The accumulation of names and wide range of institutional affiliations associated with the various conferences on Camões held in the United States, beginning with the 1972 gathering at the University of Connecticut, seems to indicate—hardly a surprise—that Camões’s literary reputation is now largely in the hands of scholars and translators. In 1965 Sena had written of the Camões who had “deixado/ a vida pelo mundo em pedaços repartida, como dizia/ aquele pobre diabo que o Minotauro não leu, porque,/ como toda a gente, não sabe português.” The efforts of Jorge de Sena, culminating in a series of essays, poems, and books in the 1970s, earned him a central place in the campaign to make Camões and his work better understood and more widely read not only in Portuguese-speaking countries but in the United States and the United Kingdom as well. He concluded his 1975 essay “”Camões: the lyrical poet,” written to accompany the publication of a small handful of translations of Camões’s poems, in this way:

Let us hope that this selection of his poems will start his resurrection as a great lyrical poet for English readers. Much has aged for our time in his epic poem, which still is, nevertheless, an extraordinary achievement whose fascinating secrets (very different from the ‘official’ interpretations) are yet very far from being unraveled. But nothing has aged in his lyrical poems, except superficial modes and turns of style: and there, as in many passages of the spic poem, we have a man, and a complex human being at that, talking to us, in the way only great poets do, about anguishes, hopes and despairs very much akin to our own today.

To the same end, that of making Camões better and more accurately known to the English-speaking world at large, Jorge de Sena, I was told by an editor at G. K. Hall in 1979, had agreed to write the biographical-critical volume on Camões for the Boston publisher’sseries on “World Authors.” If that information is correct, then it was not his destiny to fulfill this commitment. Jorge de Sena, the scholar of his generation best fitted to promote the cause of Camões, died in 1978 at the age of fifty-eight.



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WOODBERRY, George Edward, “Camoens,” in The Inspiration of Poetry, New York, Macmillan, 1910, pp. 58-84.

* George Monteiro is Adjunct Professor, Professor Emeritus of English and Portuguese and Brazilian Studies at Brown University (Providence, RI), USA